MSDD1000 Series Monochromator-Spectrograph, Perfect Imaging

MSDD1000 series Monochromator–spectrograph is a double dispersion monochromator-spectrograph with the effective focal length of 1 m. Double scheme combines a high spectral resolution which is peculiar to long-focus instruments, extremely low stray light being the advantage of double schemes and small sizes of single monochromators–spectrographs.

Description

MSDD1000 series Monochromator–spectrograph is a double dispersion monochromator-spectrograph with the effective focal length of 1 m. Double scheme combines a high spectral resolution which is peculiar to long-focus instruments, extremely low stray light being the advantage of double schemes and small sizes of single monochromators–spectrographs.

MSDD1000 series Monochromator–spectrograph is a completely automated spectral instrument with the effective focal length of 1000 mm (2х500 mm) and F\number of 1/5.9, which is applicable as a monochromator or a spectrograph with a large flat field.

 

The MSDD1000 series is designed on the modified Cherny-Turner scheme with the two-level arrangement of optical components to allow dispersion doubling, aberrations minimization and exclusion of spectra re-entrance from the diffraction gratings and mirrors.

This is a double dispersion monochromator with no intermediate slit, in which upper and lower levels are the separate monochromators. These two levels are connected by means of two plane turning mirrors.
The design of the optical scheme and construction of the MSDD1000 series allows the monochromator of any level to be applied as the first one. Thus, if radiation is delivered to the entry of monochromator of one of the levels, the spectrum is formed in the flat field of the monochromator of another level, providing easy cascade of monochromators for construction of quadruple monochromator from two double ones.

High-quality optics and a wide choice of diffraction gratings provide operation of the MSDD1000 series monochromator-spectrograph in a wide spectral range from 185 nm up to 60 µm (depending on the selected grating) with the best spectral resolution.

In MSDD1002i model and MSDD1004i model the astigmatism is corrected owing to special optics what makes these instruments applicable in multi-channel spectroscopy. ONLY one input port is used in these instruments.

 

MSDD1000 series Monochromator–spectrograph has two input (only the models with no astigmatism compensation – MSDD1002 model and MSDD1004 model) ports and two output ports. Selection of the output ports is realized with flip mirrors. Either exit spectral slits or multi-channel detectors can be established in each of the output ports.

MSDD1000 series Monochromator–spectrograph has two types of entrance and exit spectral slits: manual, operated with a micrometer screw, and automated (combined) when the slit width is operated automatically or manually (with micrometer).

 

A wide choice of changeable gratings gives the best combination of high energetic efficiency and maximal spectral resolution for different spectrum areas.

We also propose a great choice of additional accessories for MSDD1000 series monochromator–spectrograph: filter wheel (6 and 8 filters), fast shutters with the opportunity of radiation direct delivery or via optical fiber, optical fibers with adapters, input and output condensers, integral and multi-element detectors and etc.

Extremely high spatial resolution (better than 0,004 nm for 3600l/mm grating) in combination with high throughput (F/number 1/5.9) make double dispersion monochromator–spectrographs of MSDD1000 series an ideal instrument for spectroscopy applications requiring high resolution in the limited area, when other instruments can not be physically applied.

I M A G I N G

 

MSDD1004i 2018

 

MS benefits

 

MSDD1004 optic sheme

Automated turret for two pairs of gratings (MSDD1004 model and MSDD1004i model) provides a fast switching of gratings with high repeatability of the set wavelength.

 

MSDD1002 optic sheme

In MSDD1002 model and MSDD1002i model a fixed holder is used for easy manual switching of gratings.

 

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Theory & Instructions
1. Spectral Instrument. Basic Concepts and Characteristics.
2. Spectral Devices. A Spectral Device Selection. 
3. Spectra Detection. Detector Selection.

 

 

Models MSDD100 Series MSDD1002 MSDD1002i MSDD1004 MSDD1004i
Diffraction unit Fixed holder for manually changeable gratings Fixed holder for manually changeable gratings Turret for two pairs of gratings Turret for two pairs of gratings
Optics  Standard Astigmatism–compensated (Imaging) Standard Astigmatism–compensated (Imaging)

 

As well as in all Cherny–Turner scheme–based spectral instruments, in MSDD1000 series monochromator–spectrographs an 00′ axis of the diffraction gratings rotation goes through the center of grating operating surface and coincides with the direction of lines. This fact provides the stability of the geometry of the beams for formation of a plane and fixed flat field. In the instrument with an automated turret, gratings rotation axes M-M1 and N-N1 are arranged perpendicular to the spectrum scanning axis, providing a high repeatability of wavelength setting at replacing of gratings.

 

Specification

Optical system

Optical scheme: modified Cherny–Turner two-fold configuration
Wavelengths range: 180 nm – 60 µm
F\number: 5.9
Focal length: 1000 mm (2 х 500 mm)
Scanning range limited by the grating rotation angle: 0 – 1280 nm (grating 1200 l/mm)
Basic mirrors: Spherical
Stray light: 10-8 (20 nm from laser line 632,8 nm)
Flat field: 28 х 10 mm

Imaging

Model MSDD1002 MSDD1004 MSDD1002i MSDD1004i
Horizontal magnification: 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08
Vertical magnification: 1.11 1.11
Vertical spatial resolution
Minimal distance between the edges of two neighboring tracks (in multi-channel spectroscopy):
< 15 µm < 15 µm

 

Spectral Image Enlarged Spectral Image

Grating 1200 l/mm, light source – mercury-helium lamp: (576.961 nm and 579.067 nm), multi-channel optical fiber bundle,
fiber core diameter 200 µm, CCD pixel size 12×12 µm)

Drive

Motor: micro stepper
Drive: sine
Step size: 0.18 arc seconds
Precision: ± 1 step
Max. speed: 10000 steps/s

Optic (for grating 1200 l/mm, wavelength 546 mm)

Reciprocal dispersion: 0.82 nm/mm
Repeatability: ± 0.005 nm
Spectral resolution:
– PMT: 0.013 nm
– digital cameras (12 µm pixel): 0.017 nm
Wavelength accuracy: ± 0.028 nm
Average scanning step: 0.0014 nm

Gratings

Size: 80 х 70 х 10 mm
Rotation: About the center of ruled grating surface
Mounting: 1. Automated turret for 2 pairs of gratings
2. Holder for 1 pair of manually changeable grating
Automated turret for 2 pairs of gratings (MSDD1004 model and MSDD1004i model)
Grating repeatability:
– wavelength: ± 0.006 nm
– vertical image: ± 20 µm
Holder for 1 manually changeable grating (models MSDD1002 and MSDD1002i)
Grating repeatability:
– wavelength: ± 0.05 nm
– vertical image: ± 75 µm

Ports

Numbers: 2 input, 2 output
Output port repeatability (automated mirror): ± 0.01 nm
Switching time (input port): 4 s
Switching time (output port): 4 s

Spectral slits automated (combined)

Control: Automated (drive) or manual (micrometer)
Width: Regulated from 0 up to 2.0 mm
Parallelism: ± 1 µm
Accuracy (slit 1 mm): ± 10 µm
Repeatability: ± 1 µm
Reading accuracy (micrometer): 2 µm
Step size: 0.5 µm
Height: Diaphragm-regulated from 0 up to 10 mm

Spectral slits (manually operated)

Control: Manual (micrometer)
Width: Regulated from 0 up to 2.0 mm
Parallelism: ± 1 µm
Accuracy (slit 1 mm): ± 10 µm
Repeatability: ± 1.5 µm
Reading accuracy (micrometer): 2 µm
Height: Diaphragm-regulated from 0 up to 10 mm

Integrated shutter

Number: 2 (in each input port)
Shut time: ~ 100 ms
Max. frequency: 1 Hz
Control: On-board CPU or TTL-signals from the external device

Control

Central: On-board CPU
External: PC
External interface: Ethernet

Dimensions

Overall sizes (LхWхH): 556 х 324 х 340 mm
Weight: 35 kg (may differ, depends on configuration)

 

Monochromator-spectograph MSDD1000

 

 

Configuration

MSDD1000 series monochromator-spectrographs are double dispersion devices with a great variety of configurations for solving spectroscopytasks, which require a high resolution, low stray light and high precision. We propose several configurations of the device, a wide choice of diffraction gratings, great number of accessories and two types of the software.

You have a possibility to choose a necessary device configuration from the given below list depending on your task to be solved or consult our specialists.

You can choose:

  • a housing
  • a diffraction gratings assembly
  • a number of diffraction gratings, their parameters
  • a number of input ports
  • a number of output ports
  • a number and type of spectral slits
  • accessories
  • software
Housing:
  • a housing with embedded controller
  • sine mechanism of grating turning
  • basic mirrors (output and collimator)
  • optical system consisting of two automated flip mirrors
  • two integrated shutters

 

Types of housing:

  • with standard aluminium (Al+MgF2) coated optics
  • with standard gold coated optics
  • with imaging (astigmatism corrected) aluminium (Al+MgF2) coated optics
  • with imaging (astigmatism corrected) gold coated optics

 

With interference optics, on request.

 

 

 

Housing MSDD1000

Diffraction gratings assembly
 

There are two embodiments of diffraction gratings mounting:

Automated turret for two-pairs diffraction gratings

The automated turret provides switching of gratings by pressing one button of the control PC software. Grating rotation axes in the turret are arranged perpendicular to the spectrum scanning axis allowing a high reproducibility of the set wavelength while the gratings are switched.

 

 

 

 

SOL instruments: спектрометр, рамановский микроскоп, эмиссионный спектрометр. 02 turel

Holder for one pair of diffraction gratings

It provides easy manual switching of gratings. Gratings are positioned with high accuracy in holder and no additional alignment of the device is needed while the gratings are switched.

 

SOL instruments: спектрометр, рамановский микроскоп, эмиссионный спектрометр. 03 turel one

Input ports and entrance slits
Monochromators–spectrographs model MSDD1002 and model MSDD1004 posses two input ports operating in turn – axial and lateral. Astigmatism – compensated devices (modelMSDD1002i and model MSDD1004i) posses only one lateral port. Selection of the input port is realized by means of flip mirror.

The input port through which radiation is delivered to the device is active. On each of the input ports entrance spectral slit can be installed.

There are two types of slits:

  • Manually operated
  • Automated

All spectral slits have standard flanges, due to which various accessories (of own production) can be mounted directly to the entrance slit: optical fiber adapter, condenser F#-matcher, filter wheel, fast shutters, etc.

 

 

Input port MSDD1000

 

MSDD1000 series can be supplied with the following configuration of input ports:

  • One axial input port
  • One lateral input port
  • Two input ports
 

One input side and two output ports MSDD1000

One axial input port

When only one input port is used it is preferably to choose a configuration with axial input port, as in this case no input flip mirror contributing slight losses due to the additional reflecting surface is required.

In the case of configuration with one axial port a lateral input port is covered with a cap.

 

 One input two output ports MSDD1000

One lateral input port

For some applications the lateral input port is required – for example, for monochromators cascading. For the one lateral input port configuration a fixed flip mirror is used.
In the case of configuration with one lateral input port an axial port is covered with a cap.

One lateral port is used in the astigmatism – compensated monochromators – spectrographs (model MSDD1002i and model MSDD1004i).

 

 

One side input port MSDD1000

Two input ports

When both output ports are used the automated input flip mirror is installed in the device for the fast and highly-precise ports switching. The input port through which radiation is delivered to the device is called active.

 

Two input ports MSDD1000

 

Integrated shutter
 

In MSDD1000 series a separate independent light shutter is used for each input port. Inactive input port shutter is automatically blocked, when the active port is selected. Shutters are used for measuring of the background signal or dark signal of photodetectors as well as for protection of photodetectors from high-intensity radiation. The shutter is automatically shut while zero-order wavelength is setting. The shutter is controlled with the control PC software as well as with TTL-signals of the external device.

Output ports
 

MSDD1000 series Monochromators – spectrographs have two output ports – axial and lateral. Selection of the output port is realized with a flip mirror. Either output spectral slits or adapters for multi-channel detectors can be installed on each of the output ports.

The devices can be supplied with the following output ports:

  • One axial output port
  • One lateral output port
  • Two output ports

 

 

Output ports MSDD1000

 

One axial output port

This configuration is usually applicable in the case of use of only one detector.
In the case of use of one axial output port, a lateral port is covered with a cap.

 

One output port MSDD1000

 

One lateral output port

The lateral output port should be used for the detectors with no opportunity of being installed on the axial output port of the device due to their dimensions. For the configuration with one lateral output port a fixed flip mirror is used.
In the case of use of one lateral output port configuration an axial port is covered with a cap.

One side output port MSDD1000

 

Two output ports

When both output ports are necessary to be used the automated flip mirror is installed in the device for the fast ports switching. A high precision of the flip mirror positioning (better than 0.01 nm for 1200 l/mm grating) allows obtaining of the reproducible spectra at switching the detectors while scanning.

 

Two output ports MSDD1000

 

Spectral slits
 

There are two types of entrance and exit spectral slits:

  • Manually operated
  • Automated

Manually operated spectral slits

width smoothly regulated from 0 up to 2.0 mm
parallelism ± 1µm
accuracy (at slit width 1 of mm) ± 10 µm
repeatability ± 1.5 µm
reading accuracy (micrometer) 2 µm
step size 10 mm

 

The slit width is operated manually with the micrometer screw. The slit height is regulated by a diaphragm in the range of 0 – 10 mm.

 

 

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Automated spectral slits

width regulated from 0 up to 2.0 mm
parallelism ± 1 µm
accuracy (slit width 1 mm) ± 10 µm
repeatability ± 1 µm
reading accuracy (micrometer) 2 µm
step size 0.5 µm
step size 10 mm

 

In the automated spectral slits a stepper motor is used for control over the width of the blades opening either with PC or a hand controller. The slit width also may be controlled manually by means of a micrometer screw. The slit height is regulated by a diaphragm in the range of 0 – 10 mm.

 

 

SOL instruments: спектрометр, рамановский микроскоп, эмиссионный спектрометр. 14 motor slit

 

All spectral slits have standard flanges which allow attachment of various accessories (of own production) directly to the entrance slit: optical fiber adapter, condenser F#-matcher, filter wheel, fast shutter, photodiode and PMT detectors, etc.

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Control
 

MSDD1000series monochromators – spectrographs are completely automated spectral devices.

The embedded controller is the basic control unit of the device that performs regular control of the operational commands from the external control device. Besides, the embedded controller takes control over the build-in ADC that process signals from the integral photodetectors – PMT, photodiodes,etc.

External control of the device is performed by PC.

Control software DevCtrl

Service software DevCtrl is supplied with the device.

DevCtrl program controls all drivers, units and accessories of the device. The software also gives an access to the system parameters and setup coefficients of the device.

 

 

 

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Spectroscopy software SpectraSP

Spectroscopy software SpectraSP is intended for joint control over monochromators–spectrographs and detection systems based on the integral or multi-element photodetectors. SpectraSP provides simultaneous control over the device and optical radiation detection by means of various detectors with subsequent data processing and their graphical displaying.

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Available device configurations
 

Accessories input ports

Input ports

 

Accessories output ports


Output ports

 

Gratings

 

While choosing a device configuration it is important to select properly the diffraction gratings. A right selection of the diffraction grating allows one to obtain the best combination of high energetic efficiency and spectral resolution.

The basic grating parameters which determine their right choice you can find in the methodical material “Spectral Instrument. Basic Concepts and Characteristics.”

We propose a wide range of diffraction gratings to be used in the MSDD1000 Series. Please, choose a necessary grating from the given below list, or consult our specialists.

SOL instruments: спектрометр, рамановский микроскоп, эмиссионный спектрометр. dif grating 435x315

Basic parameters for correct selection of diffraction gratings:

In the Table “Selection of diffraction gratings” groove density and blaze wavelength belong to a diffraction grating parameters. Other parameters characterize a spectral device together with a selected grating.

  • Groove density. The diffraction grating has a periodic structure. Such parameters as resolving power and free spectral range are determined by the periodic structure properties of a diffraction grating. The period of grating is the distance through which grooves are repeated. The reciprocal value of a grating period is called the groove density and displays the number of grooves in 1 mm.
  • Blaze wavelength. The reflectivity of a grating depends on the grooves geometry, because the direction to the center of the diffraction maximum is determined by the mirror reflection of the incident beam from the edge of a groove. In spite of rather flat profile of diffraction maximum a blaze wavelength that corresponds to the maximum efficiency of the grating has been adopted as a feature for convenience of calculation.
    When selecting a grating it is useful to determine a blaze wavelength for a required grating on the spectral range of limited wavelengths WL1 and WL2. The blaze wavelength is determined by the ratio:
    WLBlaze = 2 ∙ WL1 ∙ WL2 / (WL1 + WL2).
  • Reciprocal linear dispersion. The light from a grating in the focal plane of a spectral instrument forms a spectrum. Linear dispersion is used for a spectrum characteristic, which is defined as a reciprocal value of the product of angular dispersion of a grating and focal length of a spectral instrument and shows the spectral range that falls on a single linear distance in a focal plane.
  • The spectral resolution. Limiting resolution of a spectral instrument is equal to the minimum half-width of its instrument function. The instrument function is determined by finite sizes of entrance diaphragm, aberrations and also distortions caused by inaccuracy in manufacturing and adjustment of optical elements of instrument. In addition, instrument function, and thus spectral resolution are dependent on lighting method of entrance slit, used aperture and registration system parameters.
  • Operating wavelength range. Energy efficiency range referred to the wavelength region in which grating reflection coefficient is not less than  0.405 of the maximum. In the first order this range is limited by the wavelengths: ⅔ ∙ WLBlazeand 2 ∙ WLBlaze.
    Operating range usually corresponds to a grating energy efficiency. In some cases, for gratings with a high groove density and large blaze wavelength, the long-wave border of operating spectral range of instrument is limited by a maximal rotation angle of a grating which is defined by design of instrument.

MSDD1000 series Monochromator-spectrograph serves for obtaining high spectral resolution with small size of the device, thus there are certain limitations when choosing gratings, connected with a specific optical schematic of this type of the device.

The MSDD 1000 series – double dispersion monochromator-spectrographs with the two-level arrangement of optical components to allow dispersion doubling. In order to avoid downfall of two adjacent orders of the same decomposed in a spectrum wavelength from one grating to another, the spectral range of MSDD1000 series has limitations in a short-wave region for the gratings with low lines density.

 

Grating,
l/mm
Minimal operating wavelength, nm
600 300
400 450
300 600
200 900
150 1200
100 1800
75 2400
50 3600
37.5 4800
24 7500

 

There is no limitation in a short-wave region for gratings with high groove density.

 

Table of diffraction gratings

Model Line density,
mm-1
Blaze wavelength, nm  *Reciprocal linear dispersion, nm/mm Spectral resolution,
nm
Operating wavelength range, nm Spectral range limited by the grating rotation angle, nm
783600 3600 hol 0.27** 0.0056 185 – 425 425
782422 2400 225 0.41 0.009 185 – 450 640
782427 2400 270 0.41 0.009 185 – 540 640
782770 2400 400 0.39 0.008 270 – 640 640
781827 1800 270 0.55 0.011 185 – 540 850
781840 1800 400 0.54 0.011 270 – 800 850
781840 1800 500 0.53 0.011 330 – 850 850
781875 1800 750 0.46 0.009 500 – 850 850
781225 1200 250 0.84 0.017 185 – 500 1280
781228 1200 280 0.84 0.017 190 – 560 1280
781240 1200 400 0.83 0.017 270 – 800 1280
781250 1200 500 0.82 0.017 335 – 1000 1280
781260 1200 600 0.81 0.017 400 – 1200 1280
781275 1200 750 0.79 0.016 500 – 1280 1280
780640 600 400 1.67 0.035 300 – 800 2560
780650 600 500 1.67 0.035 335 – 1000 2560
780660 600 600 1.67 0.035 400 – 1200 2560
780675 600 750 1.66 0.035 500 – 1500 2560
7804008 400 800 2.51 0.052 535 – 1600 3840
7804012 400 1200 2.49 0.052 800 – 2400 3840
7804017 400 1700 2.45 0.051 1135 – 3400 3840
7804020 400 2000 2.41 0.05 1335 – 3840 3840
7804025 400 2500 2.32 0.048 1670 – 3840 3840
780370 300 700 3.34 0.07 600 – 1400 5120
7803010 300 1000 3.34 0.07 670 – 2000 5120
7803015 300 1500 3.33 0.07 1000 – 3000 5120
7803020 300 2000 3.3 0.07 1335 – 4000 5120
7803030 300 3000 3.16 0.07 2000 – 5120 5120
7803035 300 3500 3.05 0.06 2330 – 5120 5120
7802015 200 1500 5 0.1 1000 – 3000 7680
7802020 200 2000 5 0.1 1335 – 4000 7680
7802025 200 2500 5 0.1 1670 – 5000 7680
7802030 200 3000 4.9 0.1 2000 – 6000 7680
7815030 150 3000 6.7 0.14 2000 – 6000 10240
7815045 150 4500 6.5 0.14 3000 – 9000 10240
7801025 100 2500 10 0.21 1800 – 5000 15360
7801030 100 3000 10 0.21 2000 – 6000 15360
7801042 100 4200 10 0.21 2770 – 8320 15360
7801048 100 4800 10 0.21 3230 – 9680 15360
7801055 100 5500 9.9 0.21 3670 – 11000 15360
7801062 100 6200 9.9 0.2 4130 – 12400 15360
7801072 100 7200 9.8 0.2 4800 – 14400 15360
7801088 100 8750 9.5 0.2 5830 – 15360 15360
7801097 100 9700 9.3 0.19 6470 – 15360 15360
7801103 100 10300 9.2 0.19 6870 – 15360 15360
7875070 75 7000 13.3 0.28 4670 – 14000 20480
7875095 75 9500 13 0.27 6330 – 19000 20480
7850038 50 3800 20 0.42 3600 – 7600 30720
7850063 50 6300 20 0.42 4200 – 12600 30720
7850070 50 7000 20 0.42 4670 – 14000 30720
7850083 50 8300 20 0.42 5530 – 16600 30720
7850124 50 12400 19.7 0.41 8270 – 24800 30720
7850169 50 16900 19.2 0.4 11270 – 30720 30720
7850200 50 20000 18.6 0.38 13330 – 30720 30720
7837093 37.5 9300 26.7 0.55 6200 – 18600 40960
7837156 37.5 15600 26.4 0.55 10400 – 31200 40960
7824116 24 11600 41.8 0.87 7730 – 23200 64000
7824144 24 14400 41.8 0.87 9600 – 28800 64000
7824173 24 17300 41.7 0.86 11530 – 34600 64000
7824243 24 24300 41.3 0.86 16200 – 48600 64000
7824285 24 28500 40.8 0.85 19000 – 57000 64000
7824325 24 32500 40.3 0.84 21670 – 64000 64000

* at the blaze wavelength

** at the wavelength 255 nm

For blaze wavelength 2000 nm and shorter the data measured by multielement detectors with entrance slit 15 microns.

For the wavelength more than 2000 nm the data obtained by calculation with the entrance slit 15 microns.